Vitamins are organic compounds needed by the organism as an energy source, but for other vital functions, but can not synthesize the metabolism for the most part. They must therefore be taken with food. Some vitamins are supplied to the body as a precursor (provitamin), the body converts it first into the active form. Fat-soluble vitamins are divided into (lipophilic) and water (hydrophilic) vitamins.
In different organisms different substances are vitamins. For example, pigs can produce about 100 mg vitamin C / kg body weight, people can not because of the absence of L-Galactonolacton oxidase. Thus vitamin C is not a vitamin for pigs.
Generally, only the vital substances as vitamins for men are called. But even with the necessary vitamins for humans, there is an exception which is not really a vitamin. This exception is vitamin D. The body is in fact even in a position to produce vitamin D, provided it receives sufficient sunlight.
Vitamin C, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3), pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), vitamin B6, biotin (vitamin B7, vitamin H), vitamin B9 (folic acid), vitamin B12
Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed in the small intestine by carriers or receptors. While vitamin B2 is absorbed by passive transport, the absorption of vitamin B1, vitamin B12 and vitamin C is active.
The water-soluble vitamins are precursors of coenzymes or prosthetic groups of various enzymes.
In the table below are just some examples of the occurrence and effects of vitamins called
Vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K
After reading an article by the Dutch physician Christiaan Eijkman are employed by the Polish biochemist Casimir Funk in 1912 intensively with the isolation of active compound against the vitamin deficiency disease beri-beri, a previously unexplained new disease, which occurred in Japan, and Java. Eijkman was observed in a military hospital in Batavia, in addition patients (prisoners) and personnel as the chickens in the yard of the hospital, the symptoms of the disease beri-beri (to German: sheep showed Gang).
Because the chickens were fed recently with the same white, milled rice as the patients and staff, instead of the current with brown rice. Beri-beri was accompanied by paralysis and lost strength. This disease occurred only after they had been introduced in these countries, European rice husking machines. It was suggested a deficiency disease. Casimir Funk isolated from rice bran, a substance that could cure the deficiency disease
Between 1920 and 1980 today (2004) known vitamins were first presented pure. For now these vitamins and chemical synthesis routes are known. Diseases as a result of vitamin deficiency, were only the beginning of the 20th Century recognized.
In 1913, the name of the vitamins in large letters of the alphabet by the American biochemist Elmer McCollum Vermon was introduced. Thus, there was a vitamin A, B, C and D were then add to that vitamins E and K. In the analysis of food that contains vitamin B, it turned out that this was anything more than a factor that could turn off more of the symptoms. Thus spoke the biologists of vitamin B1, B2, etc.
Vitamins role and function
Vitamins provide in principle for the functioning of metabolism. Your task is to regulate the recycling of nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, they provide for their ex-or conversion and thus also serve the energy. Vitamins boost the immune system and are indispensable in building cells, blood cells, bones and teeth. Each vitamin, with certain tasks. They also differ in regard to their different effects.
The Polish biochemist Casimir Funk, adopted in 1912 that all vital substances containing an NH2 group. He therefore coined the term "vitamin" (from Latin vita for life and for nitrogenous amine).
Subsequent studies showed, however, that are by far not all vitamins amines or contain other basic nitrogen atoms. Good examples of the vitamin A (retinol), a nitrogen-free, unsaturated alcohol and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are,
Besides the chemical structure that gives the name of the vitamin are also letters, combined with a number designation, and trivial names used are 13 vitamins essential vitamins as:
Vitamins are scientifically not chemically uniform group of substances. They are organic compounds regulate the biological processes in the human (and animal) body. Include vitamins, minerals and trace elements as well as to the non-energy-supplying nutrients that the body needs to maintain his life and his performance absolutely.
Since it is in the vitamins to be quite complicated organic molecules, they come in inanimate nature does not. Vitamins must be formed only from plants, bacteria or animals. The man, with a few exceptions where it can produce certain vitamins themselves, dependent on the dietary intake. Vitamins are essential substances, which means that they are to maintain health and performance of the human organism to life. Some vitamins are supplied to the body as a precursor (pro-vitamin), which are only converted in the body in the corresponding active form
The letter designation for the vitamins:
Vitamin A Axerophtol, Retinol Retinol
Vitamin B1 Thiamin Aneurin
Vitamin B2 Lactoflavin, Riboflavin Vitamin G
Vitamin B3 * Vitamin PP, Vitamin B5 ** Niacin
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic Acid * Vitamin B3
Vitamin B6 Adermin, pyridoxol pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine
Vitamin B7 Vitamin H, I or Biotin Vitamin Bw
Vitamin B9 vitamin Bc vitamin M or Folic acid
Vitamin B12 Cobalamin Erythrotin
Vitamin C ascorbic acid
Vitamin D Calciferol
Vitamin E Tocopherol
Vitamin K phylloquinone and menaquinone ***
Vitamins are chemical compounds in very small quantities are needed. Exception is vitamin C, the daily requirement is approximately 75mg per day. Vitamins are incorporated into coenzymes and cause an acceleration of metabolism (catalytic function). Under normal eating habits take vitamin deficiency diseases (scurvy in vitamin C) or (rickets in vitamin D) is a rare case. Vitamin deficiency diseases tend to occur as a result of an unbalanced diet. More commonly, however hypovitaminoses to occur in areas of relative deficiency without disease states. At high physical activity, this is the case of vitamin B group is often the case. Vitamins are distinguished in terms of their water solubility.
The water-soluble vitamins include:
* Vitamin A (retinol) is found in fruits, vegetables and milk and is considered part of the visual purple. Vitamin A is stored and used to adjust the eye to different levels of brightness.
* Vitamin E (tocopherol) is as well to the group of antioxidants vitamin C and is contained in cereal grains and fruit. Vitamin E serves as a protective function against unwanted oxidation reactions that can destroy cells and vessel walls. Unproven is the effect of increasing fertility and reduce aging. Vitamin E is often taken by athletes.
* Vitamin D (Kalziferol) is contained in egg, milk and cod liver oil. It serves the regulation of phosphate and calcium metabolism and affects the mineralization of bone. Deficiency cause osteoporosis, especially in children.
* Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is present above all in green vegetables and tomatoes, and causes an increased blood clotting. It stimulates the liver to form Prothrobin. If deficiencies it will be a delayed clotting.
The water-soluble vitamins do not include:
* Vitamin B (B1, B2, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid) are found in grains, yeast, protein, liver. Vitamin B1 is included in the degradation of glucose. A deficiency causes increased lactate levels and decreased performance under load. Vitamin B2 is responsible for the aerobic metabolism. Vitamin B6 in the formation of sugar, hemoglobin, and involved, and Myoglobinbildung. A deficiency of vitamin B6 causes anemia and thus reduced performance. Vitamin B12 is responsible for the fat, and carbohydrate metabolism and helps in the formation of red blood cells. Deficiency anemia are dangerous.
* Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid may be referred to only very limited and is stored for bone formation, construction of connective tissue and wound healing important. Vitamin C is responsible for iron absorption in the intestine, tannins from coffee and tea inhibit this recording. A performance-enhancing, as well as increased resistance to infection is still not proven by the supply of Vitamin C. The daily dose of 200 mg - 400. Include vitamin C is mainly fruit and vegetables. A lack of vitamin C is especially noticeable when gums bleed.
Among the minerals needed:
* Cations (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, Kabalt, zinc and copper)
* Anions (Phostphat, chloride, fluoride and iodide)
Minerals needed to be distinguished in their concentration
Quantity of elements
Calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium, and phosphate and chloride are at a daily dose of about 50mg per kilogram of body weight is very high. The minerals account for 5% of body mass. Sodium and chloride are outside the cell, potassium and phosphate are available within the cell. There they are responsible for the excitation of nerve transmission, as well as osmotic pressure and water balance of the cells. Other ions fulfill specific functions. Phosphate is a component of adenosine triphosphate and therefore necessary for the provision of energy. Magnesium is one of the most important minerals and is a component of the enzymes for energy transmission to the muscle cells and thus to induce a muscle contraction. Physical activity is increased by magnesium was added in the muscle cell and through the sweat excreted. A magnesium deficiency increases the permeability of the cell wall enzymes which leave the cell. The efficiency decreases and magnesium must be taken. Calcium is a 50% component of bone. The increased loss of minerals, the need for athletes is significantly higher.
The low concentration of minerals are called trace elements.
The most important iron count as part of the red blood cells. Iron deficiency can therefore lead to anemia. Iodide is a component of thyroid hormones and fluoride is necessary for the dental, and bone formation.
Dietary fiber can not be digested and are contained mainly in plant foods. The fibers include, pectin. Lignin and cellulose. They are energetically not relevant and provide only the water-binding effect in a controlled intestinal activity. In addition, fiber lead to a faster saturation occurring. The recommended daily dose is around 30g per day. The actual intake, however, is usually much underneath. It contains fiber in fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
will be cancer by vitamin supplementation prevents
The idea that cancer can be prevented through vitamin supplementation stems from early observations correlating human disease with vitamin deficiency, such as pernicious anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency, scurvy and vitamin C deficiency. This has not been proved, in essence, be the case, which is cancer, and vitamin supplementation does not prevent a large extent be effective cancer. The cancer-fighting components of food are also proving to be more numerous and more diverse than previously understood, so that more and more patients are advised to consume fresh, unprocessed fruits and vegetables for maximum health benefits.
Epidemiological studies have shown that low vitamin D status correlates ist.jedoch to increased cancer risk, the results of such studies must be treated with caution because they can not show whether a correlation between two factors means that one causes the other (ie Correlation does not imply causality). The possibility that vitamin D may protect against cancer was compared with the risk of malignancy from sun exposure. As the sunlight increases natural human production of vitamin D, some cancer researchers have argued that the potential harmful effects of solar radiation malignant outweighed by far the cancer-prevention effects of extra vitamin D synthesis in sun-exposed skin. In 2002, Dr. William B. Grant, that 23 800 premature deaths occur annually due to cancer in the U.S. due to insufficient UVB exposure (apparently on vitamin D deficiency). This is more than 8,800 deaths from melanoma or squamous cell so the overall impact of solar radiation could be beneficial. Another research group estimates that 50.000 to 63.000 people in the United States and 19000-25000 in the United Kingdom, the prematurely from cancer annually due to insufficient vitamin D, the
The case of beta-carotene is an example of the importance of randomized clinical trials. Epidemiologists studying both diet and serum levels observed that high levels of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, combined with a protective effect, were the reduction of the risk of cancer. This effect was particularly strong in lung cancer. This hypothesis led to a series of large randomized clinical trials in Finland and the United States (CARET study) conducted during the 1980s and 1990s. This study has added about 80,000 smokers or former smokers with daily beta-carotene or placebos. Contrary to expectation, these tests found no benefit of beta-carotene supplementation in reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality. Indeed, the risk of lung cancer was slightly but not significantly increased by beta carotene, leading to a premature termination of the study.
Results reported show in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 2007 that folic acid is not effective in preventing colorectal cancer and folate consumers may form the likelihood and polyps.